Capabilities and Functions of Programma 101
Programma 101 consists of six main parts
- the keyboard which allows you to immediately execute operations such as addition or entering a program;
- the memory that stores data and instructions ;
- a roll printer ;
- a magnetic card reader-writer;
- an arithmetic and logical unit ;
- and finally a control unit .
Programma 101 had four basic arithmetic functions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), as well as square root , absolute value , and fractional part extraction. In addition to erasing, transferring, and exchanging storage registers, it is equipped with printing and input standby functions. Functions such as conditional jump instructions, alphanumeric programming languages, internal memory, and data storage mechanisms could be defined as “computers.” Thirty-two label statements could be used as jump instructions and jump destinations to the four start keys (V, W, Y, Z)  . Magnetic card routines could be used without any programming knowledge.
Like a calculator or cash register , this machine prints programs and results on tape roll paper.
Programming was similar to assembly language , but with simpler and fewer choices. I was able to instruct the exchange of the storage register, the arithmetic register, and the instructions in the register. The instructions occupied 1 byte, and the magnetic card could store 120 instructions. On large computers such as the Elea 9003 ( Italian version ) , instructions occupy 8 bytes, and 120 instructions occupy nearly 1KB of the basic model’s total memory of 20KB.
The program could be saved on a plastic card of about 10 cm x 20 cm with a magnetic coating on one side and a note on the other side. Each card was recorded on two lines and could store two programs. Four registers were stored on the card and two registers were dedicated to the program code. The other three registers (D, E, F) could be used for chords or numbers.
- Size: 275 mm ( A ) x 465 mm ( L ) x 610 mm ( P )
- Weight: 35.5 kg
- Consumption: 0.35 kW
- Output device: 30 column printer on 9 cm paper
- Accuracy: 22 digits and up to 15 decimal places
- Operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide, square root and absolute value
- Total memory: 240 bytes in the ALU (estimated) [AP 10]
- Keyboard: 36 keys.
- Archive: magnetic card reader
Olivetti was famous for his focus on both technology and design, as evidenced by the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York .
This machine was designed by Olivetti engineer Pier Giorgio Perot in Iberia. Marco Zanuso’s ( Italian ) design, Mario Bellini’s styling was ergonomic and innovative at the time, and Bellini won the Compasso d’Oro ( Italian ) Industrial Design Award.
Programma 101 Simulator
History of Personal Computer
Olivetti Programma 101 is one of the most famous the first of early desktop computers.A small team of 4-5 Italian designer completely changed the era of the personal computer. The esthetic and ergonomic design was a brilliant futuristic look of that time. In 1962, the idea of a personal computer was born. The designer ended up with was a computer that wasn’t much larger than a regular typewriter. When first time launched in 1964 New York World Fair People were baffled at how something so small of that time could be a fully working computer. Many people suspected it had cables connected to a larger computer hidden somewhere behind the scenes.